How much time will be spent on printing of circulation? When to wait for the promised the order? Let us try to answer these questions, and understand the reasons that affect the the term of production of printed products.
For the majority of the leaders of printing date of execution of the order, set by the client of the reason for a joke: it should always be "yesterday". As usually, clients pass edition at the last moment, explaining it by the fact that, say, "it is creative and training require a lot of time, and not production, because modern printing machines are fast". And under the hour of many of the clients truly wonder why the execution of the order is more than it seemed initially. There may be several reasons, about them and we'll talk. In addition, we will try to find out, how to calculate the date of execution of the order.
Of course, every client of the printing house would like to the order was carried out immediately. But most people understand that there are time limits. Question only in that, how much anybody is willing to wait. The reasons determining the term of execution of orders, can be divided into two categories: technological and organizational.
Technological reasons tied to the printing технологии1 and little depend on the selected printing house: whatever was in it debugged production the process, the product must go through a full cycle of preparation and production. Standard the loop looks like this:
the conclusion of films,
installation of film,
manufacture of the printed forms,
послепечатные and finishing operations (their number depends on the type of products).
Theoretically, the time of production of the order is determined by amount the time required for each operation. In practice this is not practicable, as there are technologically necessary downtime on the one hand and organizational – on the other.
TERMS AND PSYCHOLOGY
The terms of production often become a cause of conflicts between the customer and the contractor. The customer considers, that "…all the terms ripped off, "and the contractor, in its turn, proves that "ѕсделали very quickly and it would be nice to pay for the urgency". As a rule, the client printing house does not have a full idea of peculiarities polygraphic technologies and therefore may not adequately assess the time required on production. Apart from the objective reasons, there are a number of psychological problems.
Firstly, man is prone to underestimate the difficulties and the complexity of other and overestimate their own. This leads to the fact, that the customer, preparing the material to be submitted to the printing house, in every way he delayed – "the head of the still not approved", rebuilt many times – "a leader does not approved and made remake" or, on the contrary, refers to the preparation was not serious – "if that is not so, in a printing house, complete, and I have no time to tinker with it, I have other is full of cases".
As a result, the order somehow, with a delay is transmitted to the printing house. In this case the customer sure that everything is done in the best possible way and genuinely surprised, when printing is not ready for the promised date. The fact that the order had to finish in a the printing house, spend on it considerably more time than it should be according to the norms of (for example, due to poor color separation or trapping), the customer, as a rule, ’t care. There arises a conflict situation. In order to work in a civilized way, we must learn to mutual understanding.
Secondly, temporary notions of every man his own, and they are treated subconsciously in their favor. If, for example, the customer requests a printing press to make the order "very quickly", then, most likely, it is because of "tomorrow in the morning, "and the printing house "by the end of next week". Each will sincerely believe in the fact that it is fast.
Organizational causes affect the general term of performance of the order in the greater degree, than technological. The reason is simple: in the printing house passes in parallel a few orders, which are distributed by priority of execution, with a view of optimization of loading of the equipment and the reduction of non-productive losses. For example, there are a few orders, standing in the print queue. In the printing machine downloaded silver paint to print the Order № 1. The head of the production is two ways of further actions: print the Order № 1, wash off the silver and pour the paint to print the Order № 2, or see if there are any among the orders of another, which also used silver paint – call it the Order № 3. By Placing an Order № 3 outside queue, the printing house will save at least one смывку machine, which in terms of the time is approximately half an hour. But there are problems, for example, it turns out, the Order № 3 do not lift the paper, have not made forms and etc. Need more time rebuild the technological chain. Management of production – is not a simple matter; for its successful organisations are involved experienced specialists and computerized the management system.
DIGITAL PRINTING AS A MEANS FOR MAKING "FAST" ORDERS
Speaking about the operational execution of the order, it’s time to remember about digital printing. The ability to quickly print the – one of the most important its merits, is determined by the following technological features.
Pre-press, in the traditional sense, takes much less time, than, for example, in offset printing, as supplies processes are missing: information in digital form is transmitted from your computer to a printing machine after which and is replicated. Most modern machines prints in color with two sides of the paper in a single pass.
Printed on a digital machine sheets does not require drying and are immediately ready for finishing processing.
Fewer demands on acclimatization of paper: it can almost be transmitted directly in production, but not вылеживаться at a certain temperature and humidity, as this happens in offset printing.
There is no need to cut the paper after printing, delete приводочные crosses and control of the scale, because they are absent. The printed sheets are sent immediately in подборочно-sewing-the-резальную the car – the so-called booklet-maker.
Приладка the digital machine takes much less time, than on offset.
The speed of the digital printing machines,significantly lower than usual offset, but at the expense of reducing the large number of support operations and technological breaks performance is obtained above. Described in the article an example of a 16 page booklet would have required significantly less time on production, if published on the digital machine. Because of its size in two times less than the size offset machine, will have to print four bilateral sheet A3, instead of two B2. Time of print one sheet of paper with a circulation of 500 copies. – about half an hour, on the whole printing will take about two hours. You can immediately print sets of four different sheets (for digital printing is not a problem) and send them to the car for sewing and trimming. And so the first limited edition copies of the finished publication may appear already in 20-30 min (!) after the beginning of work, that is literally in the presence of the customer. Print the whole print run will take about three hours. So digital polygraphy it is quite able to produce printing "by tomorrow morning".
There is an opinion that the digital printing is very expensive and on the quality is far from the offset. Actually this is not so. The quality of the copies of a traditional offset and the modern "numbers" is practically the same, but as for the cost, then it should be able to correctly count. At small volumes of digital printing more profitable offset by the absence of a whole series of technological operations and minimize the the paper going into the waste.
THE NECESSITY FOR BREAKS
In addition to technological and organizational reasons at the time of making order effect and technological breaks. The simplest example is the time required for drying of a paint. Depending on the type of the paints used the process of drying it may take from several hours to two-three days. And all this time semi-finished products should be alone, no operations on them you can’t hold a: if the fold fusing process, wet prints, scratch the paint layer and the product will be spoiled. Cropping raw impressions will lead to перетискиванию image from one leaf to another. These are just a few examples, in practice such forced interruptions much more, not only in the printing process, but also in the preparatory and the final stages of: acclimatization paper, pressure testing of the notebooks after folding, pressure of cross-linked blocks, drying adhesive binding, processes, etc. The refusal of any necessary technological break will lead to a marriage.
Had to watch how at the strong request of the customer "ѕнекогда wait, let’s hurry!" printing house shrink the technological break and as a result of all production was in a marriage. In the end, the customer accused printing house: "ѕвот after all, not only in terms summed up, but still marriage did. "And he had to only properly assess the time of making copies and not demand the impossible. Of course, for a customer it is not easy. To make precise calculations are unlikely to succeed, but to produce a rough estimate can be.
WHAT DO TERMS
Anticipating the question of the reader "and why do you need to consider term of performance of the order?"reply: for the customer to go to the printing house the corresponding view. By estimating the approximate date of manufacture of the order, you you can compare it to the one announced printing house. If it is different in several times, it does not matter, in a larger or smaller side – this is something to think about.
Too fast time can talk about the desire of the printing house to attract customers, and there are no guarantees that the obligations will be met. But another possible explanation. Printing house usually works in a regular mode, but sometimes it happens and avraly: where it is not time to forget something and now all the work of is happening in record-short time. Of course, in such a situation, the probability of the appearance of marriage. Moreover, ultimately you can hear from the printing house something like "what do you like at such a time!"
If the announced time of printing on the contrary, is too great, most likely, your order is placed in the queue for printing, or printing house itself is not unable to execute the order and is looking for a contractor, and for this there will be an additional premium.
And yet, the majority of leading printshops call date, in which guarantee to meet and fulfill the promise. Naturally, this interval is called the with a good reserve, to be able to optimize all production in the printing-house (not перемывая machine after each order, less than rebuilding the equipment, combining orders, etc.) Practice shows that if the production of the product need to be four shifts, the production time is about a week, for this time of semi-finished products have time to ripen and the quality of final products will be worthy.
Lately in Internet there appeared the information that superfast terms of production of some orders. We will not put under question the truthfulness of these allegations and to understand what kind of methods achieved the claimed in each of the a particular case, and will list a few ways that you can speed up the production of:
The time of manufacture volume of the publication can be reduced by competent distribution of work on operations. For example, to start printing printing not waiting for the production of all printed forms, fold – even if not printed all the sheets. You can print on several printing machines at the same time. Conducting parallel technological operations can significantly reduce the time of passage the order, in the considered case – by 30-40%. However, such paralleling is not used very often, because the production is becoming трудноуправляемым.
Parallelism works well on large orders, and to conduct its the small’t make sense, because nothing save will not succeed.
Another way to significantly reduce the time of order – use hours to production stoppages. For example, drying copies may take place at night, at weekends or during the lunch break, etc. If in Example 2, the printed sheets with one side in the evening, by the morning you can print the turnover. But in practice it is not so easy, because when the printing house a few orders, to plan loading equipment and production downtimes much more complicated.
To reduce the time of production at the expense of parallelism processes subcontracting operations are performed in advance: order stamp stamping foil immediately upon receipt of the order, purchase calendar blocks, etc.
THE ESTIMATION OF THE PRODUCTION
Accurately calculate the date of manufacture of the order side of man unrealistic. But you can spend a rough calculation, in order not to wait from the printing house manufacture of the 96-way full-color magazine with the circulation of 20 000 copies a day. Specialized journal printers can cope with such a task, but it will be a private case, and not the rule.
To calculate the time required for production, you can take advantage of the data from the table. To conduct calculations for an order to know the technology, printing, and most importantly – installed in it equipment. Let’s See, how to calculate the time on concrete examples.
Production described above 96-page full-color magazine will be carried out in the average printing house equipped with printing machine format B2 (approximately 70550 cm), and the line of a gluing binding.
For publication of the need to produce 12 books on eight lanes in each (more strip does not fit on the sheet format printing machine), not including the cover.
Prepress includes: manufacture of 24 sets of mechanical film format B2 – it will take six hours (of Course, it can be done faster, for example, using multiple output devices or bringing фотоформы large formats, but this is a typical case); installation of films under the printing machine will take another five to six hours and the same – manufacture of the printed forms (supplies processes). Thus, the minimum time of delivery of the layout of the publication in printing house and prior to printing, is at least 18 hours or almost half of the day, if the printing house works in two shifts.
Printing process: 24 makeready and print on each of them for 20 thousand sheets, take 60 hours or 7 shifts (3.5 days in two-shift work). You must still add time for drying the last sheet – another 12 hours. The total time for the manufacture of covers with regard varnishing and drying, calculated in the same way, will be about two shifts (Production of cover can be performed during the folding of the bloc, if the publication is printed on the sheet machine).
Послепечатные (making the brochures and перепленые and finishing processes: folding printed sheets unit (two fold) will take two full shifts (for 1.5 hours the book)(IN the roll printing machines installed the module folding, therefore, printed sheets immediately folded); бесшвейное the block with the cover will require a about nine hours of working time.
The total time required for the production of the publication, will be not less than seven-eight working days. Term, declared the company, will probably all, in two-three times more, because in the production of parallel and other orders, which do not allow to organize a continuous, consistent and instant the transition from one operation to another. There are ways to slightly reduce the term of the production of such publications.
It is necessary to make a booklet volume of 16 pages and a circulation of 500 ind. All pre-printing preparation will take a maximum of three hours, but with the seal of any some of the complexity. In this case there will be two books on eight bands, that is need to make the four makeready and on each printed edition of 500 copies. Preparation and printing will take no more than three hours, but between the two приладками have to do a break for three-four hours: the print side of the paper must be dry before than you can start to print the second side (turnover).
As a result of the timing of a relatively small order extension because of the necessary production downtime. Bending takes less than an hour, but before that also need to be sheets of dry during the day. Sheets, сфальцованные in the notebook, should be under the pressure of at least 12 hours – this will improve the appearance of the publications, especially if the paper is thick. After this you can start sewing (IN case of use of a gluing adhesive method of binding, pressed will can as notebooks, and already sealed edition – it depends on the technology of production. Stop with the finished product is kept for some time in order to cover well it next to the block. For books in the bookbinding cover is used compaction and compression of the spine).
Thus, in spite of the fact that the order is small and work for its production do not take so much time (approximately eight hours), real at observance of all temporary connections, he is performed for two days at least. At that, in practice, this term will be increased in two times and more, given the realities of the production process. Therefore, if the order will perform the work week, it already a good result.
It is necessary to separately specify the things associated with the subcontractor works; the more complex the order, the more often they arise. As a rule, one printing house can not fulfill all the possible technological operations and was forced to resort to the services of other enterprises – engage subcontractors. A typical situation when on the side of the conclusion of films (in specialized prepress bureau), UV-varnishing, cutting or stamping. For each subcontracted operation is laid several days and the only possibility to reduce time of performance of the order – replace subcontracting operations on those, which may be performed by the printing house. Otherwise, it only remains to reconcile with the increase in the terms.
METHODS OF REDUCTION OF TERMS OF MANUFACTURE
In recent time in the printing industry all over the world there is a tendency to reduction of terms of manufacture: are aimed at many of the technical and technological developments of recent years.
Direct exposure of offset plates reduces the duration формных processes it reduces the complexity through the use of devices Computer-to-Plate (CtP). For the production of 96-way magazine, described in the article, such a device might have saved about eight hours of working time.
Solid satin sheets of water-dispersion (ED) varnish eliminates the need to dry prints for a long time: almost immediately they can be transfer to finishing operations.
Printing with UV thermosetting by paints also allows to reduce the time of production: ULTRAVIOLET(UV)-paints and varnishes are fixed almost immediately under the influence of ultraviolet radiation, therefore immediately after printing prints suitable for further processing. This feature UV paints is used when printing on non-absorbent materials (plastic, tin, etc.)
Setting up printing machine using data CIP4 allows you to significantly reduce makeready time to print new order (for more details about the capabilities of CIP4 we will tell you in one of the following numbers).
Bending with simultaneous glueing is carried out with the help of a special module for sizing of the spine. They are equipped with several modern corrugated cardboard folding of the machine. As a result of sheet not only фальцуется, but also immediately glued together in a booklet or booklet.
This is not a complete list of technological methods of reduction of the time. As you can see from the examples to assess the time of manufacture of the circulation should be a good representative of the technology of its production.
INSTEAD OF AN EPILOGUE
Each production requires time – this is the need to understand and always remember. Significant reduction of terms is not possible without loss of quality the final product, at least in the majority of cases encountered in practice. Some of the modern technologies allow to significantly reduce production time of the order. However, the task of this article is different, give an idea of how independently to calculate the approximate date of manufacture of the order.
DURATION OF TECHNOLOGICAL OPERATIONS
Not all orders, you can calculate using the us table. It is suitable only for simple model of orders. The table below shows the data for the calculation of the estimated time of order. However, it should be taken into account a few points: first, these data can be used for a limited the number of the type of the advertising and publishing products. Secondly, temporary norms in different printing houses differ significantly, therefore, the results obtained can to give only a general idea about the possible terms of production. Therefore it is not necessary use them as an argument in the conversation with the printing house. And, finally, most importantly, it is necessary to understand, that to estimate the time of manufacture of ordered machine it is necessary very clearly to represent the technology on which it will be implemented.